BUGATTI GALIBIER Fort Lauderdale
This is possible thanks to the cooperation of the child to an adult, which is a central element in any educational (school) process. Systematic scientific knowledge explains early (compared with everyday) formation of scientific concepts and the fact that the level of development serves as the area next opportunity in everyday concepts, as if giving them the path of development.
In everyday terms weakness is the inability to abstract the-vaniyu to arbitrary manipulation of them, but in scientific terms – willow-ism, that is, the lack of saturation of concrete, a strong hand – the ability to freely use them. With the development of scientific concepts verbalism overcome, specification is that the effect on the development of everyday concepts, patterns of development converge.
The major result of the study of concepts Vygotsky considered an established fact – the concept of the psychological side is the act of generalization, that is, concepts presented as the meanings of words evolve. The essence of development is the transition from one structure to the other generalizations goy.
Analyzing, comparing the data obtained in child psychology, Vygotsky concludes that the child’s sense of activity comes through the gates of scientific concepts. They, through a systematic structure, can synthesize their own process activity. Scientific concepts are completely different object than spontaneous, they are mediated by other concepts, so their synthesis and their mastery occurs first.
Vygotsky believes that the system only takes the concept of singularity-znannost and arbitrary, making it a means of mastering the mental processes. Those opposed to the scientific concepts of spontaneity, unconsciousness and unsystematic ideas everyday.
Generalized in scientific terms the mental process involves is another man’s relation to it. There is its separation from the flow of mental activity, as a generalization as it chooses a subject, forms a new shape, which defines a new mode of action. Appeared so new structure generalization carries over to other areas of thought and concepts. This transfer mediated by other terms, includes both their treatment of the subject is also related to other concepts.
Thus, the issue of training and development is particularly the contents, because the scientific concepts are introduced in the field of children’s ideas from the outside. They displace the already existing child concepts without which he would not have had what must be the subject of his awareness and organizing, the system of scientific concepts, with its own structure, changes the nature of everyday concepts, according to Vygotsky, rebuilds them as if top.
A detailed analysis of theories, views on the relationship between learning and development Vygotsky gave grounds to justify its approach to the problem. He is critical of the view, which considers training-tion and development as two independent processes, and the theory, identifies training and development. Vygotsky’s attention in the discussion of the problem of training and development attracted to the idea of where the learning process binds to the emergence of new mental structures and improvements rd old, that is “a step in the training can mean a hundred steps in the development.” Temporal relationship between learning and development refers to them as follows: training development can go ahead, moving it further and causing it neoplasms. Analysis of specific data on the degree of maturity of various mental functions to the top learning and teaching about the impact on their development led Vygotsky to the idea that the development of the psychological basis of teaching school subjects is not preceded by the beginning of training, and the inside is made in close connection with it during its forward movement.
The state of development is never determined by its part of a mature, to assess the state of development should be considered and mature function. These maturing functions Vygotsky called the zone of proximal development, in contrast to mature function, that is, the level of actual development.
He proposed to determine the status of these functions (ripe and ripening-down) as follows: current level of development is determined by the nature of the tasks to be solved by the child alone with the already established and mature functions. The zone of proximal development is defined as follows: first we study current level of development, and for the same child, offer to solve more complex problems in collaboration with an adult. Together, under the guidance of an adult child may render and do more to solve more complex problems than yourself – is general known fact. It is well known the fact that the child is not an opportunity to infinity, with the increasing challenges comes a situation where, even with an can not solve the problem. The difference between the problems solved by an adult, and tasks on their own, amounts zone of proximal development.
Vygotsky data allowed him to claim that the difference in the zones of proximal development has a significant impact on the education of children in the school, whereas the current level of development in this case is much smaller neck value. “More or less than the possibility of the child’s transition from what he can do on their own to what he can do in co-operation, and is the most sensitive symptoms that characterize the dynamics of the development and success of the mental activity of the child. It fully coincides with the zone of proximal development. ”
The basic facts about the impact of training on development, for is the development of cooperation in the child with an adult role model by specifically human qualities of consciousness. Central moments of the psychology of learning, he considers the possibility of a child, in cooperation with the adult rise to a higher intellectual level, to pass on what the child knows, to what he can not and do it on the basis of imitation. This is the content of the concept of the zone of proximal development. According to imitation, understood in a broad sense, it is the main form in which the impact of training on development.